A Newsletter for
The Maori Alliance
P.O.Box 408, Wellington, New Zealand
Issue No.11/88 11 November 1988
Articles may be reproduced. Please acknowledge source.
"Ki te whai te mana Maori motuhake i runga i te kotahitanga me te tino rangatiratanga i roto i Te Tiriti o Waitangi."
Ki Te Tiriti o Waitangi, tena koe.
Ki te kaupapa o Te Kotahitanga Maori, tena koe.
E nga iwi o te motu, e nga hau e wha,
Tena koutou, tena koutou, tena koutou katoa.
After a long period of uncertainty a definitive statement of Government intent in the area of Maori affairs was made on 2 November in "Te Urupare Rangapu - Te Rarangi Kaupapa".
Following years of offensive policies such as "integration", "assimilation", and the more recent "mainstreaming", this policy at long last recognises the iwi as a social, economic and political reality rather than a mere cultural relic. At long last a government has listened, and acted.
It must be the best Maori Affairs policy for a very long time, if not ever.
This is not to say that it is anywhere near perfect, for there are deficiencies and traps in it. And it is merely a beginning. We must move on from here. For the moment the policy is but a few words of intent which must be translated into action before judgment may be passed.
It has to be put into place by both Government and ourselves.
The appointment of the Chief Executive Officer of the Ministry of Maori Policy and the General Manager of the Iwi Transition Agency are critical steps in this process.
However most of the burden of responsibility now falls upon the iwi. We really have to get our act together if we are to meet this challenge.
Getting our act together means bringing in the very best talent available to us, whether that be kaumatua or rangatahi, male or female. Experience is essential, but talent and ability know no bounds, and they are useless commodities if they are not discovered and used.
Talent and ability are not only to be found from amongst our close whanaunga either. If we look into the next hapu with open eyes we might find someone who would be better for the job than our own mokopuna.
Those iwi and their Iwi Authorities who do not find and use their best will fail to implement this latest of government policies.
Kia ora koutou,
At Hui Taumata on 30 October 1984 the Right Hon David Lange gave Maoridom some answers in his opening speech. He said:
"........this Maori Economic Development Summit Conference is part of [the] process of consultation. You who are the delegates to the Hui Taumata know that there must be a change. I sense that there is a great will in the community for that change. That will for change must be challenged and concentrated. It must not be allowed to dissipate, break up like the force of the waves as they reach the rocks of the coast. That is the challenge to you in the Hui Taumata.
You must consider the problems that confront the Maori people. You must examine the means by which they must be resolved. You must set those problems against the great resources of the Maori people . You must look for the ways in which the the possibilities and the problems can be matched and the Maori people set free to grow to their full potential.
I look to this hui to state clearly what you see as the direction and the priorities for the economic development of the Maori people".
The Prime Minister also said:
"I said to you when I began that the Government of New Zealand should not impose change on its people. There is another side to that, as I suspect some of you in the course of the next day or so will be quick to point out. The Government must not allow itself to become an obstacle to that change. If there is a will in the community for change, and that will is expressed coherently and carefully then the Government must accommodate that will. That is the other side of the coin.
I remember from the days when, with my distinguished old friend Matiu Rata in the North we used to talk about the will of the Maori people coming through. We never ultimately got around to saying what the other side of it was: that the Government then has to meet that will and be responsive to the direction of the Maori people.
The machinery of Government is large and powerful and, as we who have been in Government these short 14 weeks know, it can also be a clumsy instrument. We could overcome that awkwardness if we open ourselves to you, if we are sensitive to your expression of the future of the Maori people."
"I give you my pledge that this Government will listen to the view of the Hui Taumata......"
".......and I look to you delegates to tell me and the Government the strengths of the Maori community. In turn, I commit to you the strengths of the Government.
.....What I am saying is that there must be continuing cooperation and consultation between Government and community so that the Government has the capacity to respond to those needs as they are expressed.
You must stand tall, but you must not stand alone......"
"........we shall achieve our goals. We shall make them real through the process of consultation and cooperation. We will keep that channel of communication open - those channels that are among the Maori people themselves and between the Maori people and the Government.
I look to the strengthening of tribal links between urban and rural areas. I would expect to see Maori Trust Boards and Land incorporations playing an increasingly important role as representatives of the interests of Maori people and as a basis for the economic development of the people....."
Well said Mr David Lange. Well said.
The Hui Taumata told the Labour Government of its concerns, and of its views for future direction, in the communique called "He Kawenata". The views in "He Kawenata" stem from the Treaty of Waitangi.
The recently released document on Maori policy contains a series of questions and answers. In evaluating this document we should remember the ancient and well tested axiom that the only way to find the right answers is to ask the right questions.
So before you read the answers, study the questions.
Many of the questions in Te Urupare are the right questions. Many of the answers are fine. Are there any more questions which the iwi, and Maori people in general, must ask?
"He Kawenata" and the Treaty of Waitangi should also be read in conjunction with "He Urupare".
For in the beginning was the Maori; then came the Pakeha. On 6 February 1840 they signed the Treaty of Waitangi.
It was not honoured by the Pakeha partner.
But in 1935 the Labour Movement gained the support of much of Maoridom through its alliance with the Ratana Movement, and the understanding that Labour would honour the Treaty.
In 1984, "He Kawenata" the communique of Hui Taumata was issued. The voice of Maoridom once again spoke to the Labour Government, and said, "Honour the Treaty."
The "Development Decade" was launched with much fanfare. Matua Whangai, MANA Enterprises and Maori ACCESS set out to empower the iwi and became highly successful iwi managed programmes, despite the enormous set-back caused by the Department of Maori Loans Affairs.
The Development Decade went right off the rails. Politicians, bureaucrats, and the media attempted to kill the iwi initiatives. In April 1987 "He Tirohanga Rangapu" was published. It left the way open for the Pakeha to regain control of a Maori delivery system. It was vigorously opposed by Maoridom, exercising its combined might; its kaha.
"Te Urupare Rangapu" was published.
The iwi initiative seems to be back on track. For the time being. "Te Urupare" answers many questions. It leaves unanswered many more.
It will be a major victory for Maoridom if and when the iwi are finally recognised in law. All of them.
And in the long run there is only one answer:
"Partner; Honour our Treaty."
Congratulations to Rauru Kirikiri and his team. Well done.
Faxflash 05/88 dated 4 November 1988, To all Iwi Authorities:
Te Urupare Rangapu - Partnership Response
Government policy was revealed on 2 November in "Te Urupare Rangapu, Te Rarangi Kaupapa". It was not too bad and gives the iwi five years to get their act together. It will be hard work but it can be done.
I do not intend to go into that aspect as iwi will have to assess the iwi development proposals from their own many and varied perspectives. However I do offer some thoughts on possible weaknesses in the proposals.
THERE WILL NEED TO BE A STRONG INDEPENDENT WATCHDOG IN WELLINGTON, SET UP BY AND ACCOUNTABLE TO THE IWI.
* To make sure that the total resources transferred to Maoridom are not reduced by stealth.
* To monitor the many contracts between iwi and government agencies to make sure that they are fair, and that one iwi is not played off against another. An old habit, remember.
* To closely monitor the performance and responsiveness of government agencies in meeting Maori needs. A Ministry of Maori Policy cannot be expected to make waves if their bosses in the State Services Commission, and the power brokers in Treasury, do not fulfill their obligations under this latest policy.
The watchdog will need to:
(a) Monitor Chief Executive Officers' attitudes and performance.
(b) Monitor adherence to the Treaty of Waitangi.
(c) Check that government agencies "actively seek iwi involvement".
(d) Watch the SSC and Treasury very closely.
(e) Monitor the Ministry of Maori Policy [and the Iwi Transition Agency].
IDEALLY THERE SHOULD BE A STRONG INDEPENDENT POLICY BODY, SET UP BY AND ACCOUNTABLE TO THE IWI.
The Ministry of Maori Policy will only be accountable to the Minister. Iwi will need to ensure that Government does hear what the iwi really want.
A WAITANGI COMMISSION.
The Royal Commission on Social Policy recommended that a Waitangi Commission be established to monitor Government performance. Perhaps the iwi should set up an independent Waitangi Commission as the watchdog.
TWO MORE QUESTIONS WHICH DID NOT APPEAR IN TE URUPARE.
* Will funding still be available to iwi after the five year period?
* When will the Treaty of Waitangi be honoured?
A POLITICAL DEADLINE.
Iwi may decide to use funds to purchase services other than through the Iwi Transition Agency, and may apply for these funds to be transferred to them. The first transfer of such funds will be 1 July 1990 at the earliest. That timing of 1990 again!
* This date is just one month before the last date for the General Elections. A good time for buying election votes in dodgy electorates.
* The 1990 Commemoration celebrations will be all over by then. The 1 July 1990 date will be used as a carrot to keep us in line.
* If Government decides not to go ahead with the transfer of funding they could hold the elections in June (or earlier) and deliver the bad news after the elections.
Iwi should negotiate for another deadline to be included. The actual amounts to be transferred should be agreed by 6 February 1990, even if they cannot be transferred until July.
Sun Tzu said: "All men can see the tactics whereby I conquer, but what none can see is the strategy out of which victory is evolved.
Do not repeat the tactics which have gained you one victory, but let your methods be regulated by the infinite variety of circumstances.
Military tactics are like unto water; for water in its natural course runs away from high places and hastens downwards.
So in war, the way is to avoid what is strong and to strike at what is weak.
Water shapes its course according to the nature of the ground over which it flows; the soldier works out his victory in relation to the foe whom he is facing.
Therefore, just as water retains no constant shape, so in warfare there are no constant conditions.
He who can modify his tactics in relation to his opponent and thereby succeed in winning, may be called a heaven-born captain."
Sun Tzu said:
"By discovering the enemy's dispositions and remaining invisible ourselves, we can keep our forces concentrated, while the enemy's must be divided.
We can form a single united body, while the enemy must split up into fractions. Hence there will be a whole pitted against separate parts of a whole, which means that we shall be many to the enemy's few.
And if we are able thus to attack an inferior force with a superior one, our opponents will be in dire straits.
The spot where we intend to fight must not be made known; for then the enemy will have to prepare against a possible attack at several different points; and his forces thus distributed in many directions, the numbers we shall have to face at any given point will be proportionately few.
Numerical weakness comes from having to prepare against possible attacks; numerical strength, from compelling our adversary to make these preparations against us."
Kia mahara ki te kaupapa
It is said all over the motu that in any endeavour the kaupapa must be right. And so it must. The selection of the right kaupapa is a very important and sometimes difficult matter.
However, too often we do not remember the next important step towards achieving the kaupapa. For having selected our kaupapa, and launched into a thousand and one strategic and tactical ploys, how often is the kaupapa forgotten, or even deliberately cast aside in favour of short term or personal gains?
An ancient tenet that is taught in all modern armies is that the first principle of war is "the selection and maintenance of the aim". Remember the kaupapa.
If we remember the kaupapa, and engrave it deeply and indelibly in our minds, though we may deploy to an hundred battlefields and employ a thousand and one different strategies, all our efforts will be devoted to the pursuit of our aim, and we will not be diverted into unproductive activity.
If we steadfastly pursue the kaupapa to the exclusion of all else then we are unstoppable. The divide and rule strategy which the settlers, their governments, and all successive governments have used so effectively against us, relies wholly and solely on drawing individuals and groups away from the kaupapa.
The success of the Maori effort to reclaim tino rangatiratanga depends on the right kaupapa, and directing all our efforts, jointly and severally, towards that kaupapa.
This leads me to reveal another old and true axiom about kaupapa. The kaupapa must be understood by us all, and it must be shared by us all.
There is nothing to be gained in a battle where only the leaders know, understand, and believe in the kaupapa. The first action of a leader is not to assume or demand that the followers do follow, but to ensure that the kaupapa is understood and shared by all. If it is not understood, or if it is understood yet rejected by the people, then it will not be achieved.
Finally, the fastest Way to Victory lies also in discovering, understanding, and destroying the opposing kaupapa. Thus will the opponent be defeated before battle is joined. An hundred battles and a thousand and one strategies will be in vain if they are directed not against the opponent's kaupapa, but against the diversions he casts across our path to draw us away from his real intent.
The Treaty of Waitangi is the kaupapa of Te Putatara. The Treaty of Waitangi is the kaupapa of The Maori Alliance.
The Treaty of Waitangi is the kaupapa.
Kia mahara ki te kaupapa.
In Issue 10/88 there appeared, quite by chance, a piece about Richard Prebble (without a cause) and his bulldozer. I think Mr Prebble ran over his own portfolio with his bulldozer.
Te Putatara say, "Those who live by the bulldozer, die by the bulldozer".
The Power of the Network
The bureaucracy or hierarchy is a means of concentrating power in the hands of a few. It is typical in New Zealand. Its power is less than the sum of its parts, but nevertheless the amount of power it bestows on its chosen few can be enormous.
The power of the network is much greater than the power of the bureaucracy.
A network is an empowering organisation. A network is many times greater than the sum of all its parts, and in a network power is shared equally by its members. The network cannot be destroyed by destroying a single leader, for its heart is everywhere. A bureaucracy is only as strong as its weakest link.
The whanau, the hapu, and the iwi are networks which have survived and adapted over many centuries. Their strength has been amply demonstrated over the last 150 years under a determined assault by the Pakeha to destroy the power of the Maori.
As well as attempting to destroy the economic base of the Maori by the acquisition of lands and fisheries, the settlers attempted to defeat the networks by destroying the many centres of spiritual, intellectual, and warrior leadership. They attempted to install an aristocratic type of leadership with the status of the British upper class.
Thus would they convert the Maori networks into Pakeha hierarchies.
That the Pakeha retains a deep-seated fear of the Maori to this day is testimony to the power of the network to withstand both armed attacks, and the intellectual and bureaucratic attack in all its guises.
Whilst the Maori is now numerically small compared to the Pakeha we are still much, much stronger. That is the strength of our culture and of the network.
The Pakeha has different hierarchies for work, play, education, family life, and politics. The whanau, hapu and iwi are networks which can provide all. That is another of the strengths of Maoridom.
The Pakeha cannot see into the Maori networks, and cannot read the Maori mind. The Maori sees into the hierarchies and into the minds of the Pakeha. That too is strength.
Our weakness is trying to emulate the Pakeha, his hierarchies, and his power games.
To keep our advantage for a thousand years and more we need to minimise weakness, and to build upon strength. Empower the networks by starting at the whanau, and at the marae, and strengthening the ties that bind us.
Build the networks and forget the power games.
Build from the bottom up. A thousand dollars spent on networking will reap a greater harvest than a million dollars on lawyers fees.
Do not forget those who have been captured by the Pakeha, by his hierarchies and by his cities. They too must be reclaimed to the fold.
May the force be with you, your whanau, your hapu, your iwi.
Networkers can be identified by their willingness to share ideas and information. Power seekers are secretive.
Book Review: The Maori in the World
"Indigenous Peoples - A Global Quest for Justice: A Report for the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues"
Zed Books Ltd, London and New Jersey, 1987. $24.95.
The Government of this country has for eight years kept Maoridom in the dark about a significant United Nations initiative which affects us all.
The United Nations Working Group on Indigenous Populations (UNWGIP) has been established since 1982, and the Government has regularly presented statements to it.
However it was not until March 1988, when Nganeko Minhinnick attended a session of the UN Commission on Human Rights on behalf of Ngati Te Ata, that many other groups of indigenous peoples heard that the Maori view of our status in Aotearoa differed considerably from the "official" line of "our" government.
It was not until the UNWGIP met in August 1988 in Switzerland that representatives of Maori tribes were present.
The Government has regularly used the UNWGIP to promote its own activities, and has given an undertaking to support the Group, but has not done anything to inform Iwi Authorities and other Maori organisations about these activities. They have not bothered to consult with us, or to inform us that we have a right to participate in this and other UN forums. Foreign Affairs is another monocultural affair.
It is about time we all knew what is going on.
Information on United Nations initiatives can be obtained from the Ministry of [Pakeha] Foreign Affairs or from the Human Rights Commission.
However the report of the Independent Commission on International Humanitarian Issues is available from bookshops, and is a good general introduction to the whole field of Indigenous Peoples issues, including United Nations initiatives.
The Commission is an independent body of twenty-eight members. They are from all over the world and include Gough Whitlam (Australia), Desmond Tutu (South Africa), Sonny Ramphal (Commonwealth Secretary General), and Robert McNamara (USA).
The Commission's purpose is to study humanitarian issues, identify actions necessary to promote the well-being of people, and to make the public aware of the issues.
In their introduction, the co-chairmen of the Commission say of indigenous peoples:
"Their common cause is bringing them ever closer to each other in this global village. Their organisations are becoming increasingly active in gaining support and recognition by the world community. Indigenous peoples have been marginalised and exploited. Now, they are resisting as new assaults are carried out against them. They are struggling for survival as peoples, and they need the support of those who believe in fundamental human rights."
"Widespread education about the situation of the indigenous is called for. A starting point would be a thorough review of national histories. Governments should recognise the human tragedy brought about in the past by the unrelenting oppression of these peoples. They should acknowledge the right of the indigenous to be themselves, to have a voice and to pursue their aspirations, whether these be the preservation of their culture and traditions, the management of their lands or, indeed, education and development as they perceive it."
"The right of people to be different must be recognised not just as a legal, philosophical or political principle. It is the cornerstone upon which the rich diversity of the planet depends. Without it, we are all the poorer."
It is generally agreed that there are an estimated 200 million indigenous people in the world. We live in all continents, in capitalist and socialist countries, and in rich and poor countries. We are Aboriginals in Australia, Lapps in Scandinavia, Eskimos in the Arctic, Indians in North, Central and South America, many races in Asia, Africa and the Pacific, and Maori in Aotearoa.
We are not alone.
In fact, when you read this book you read of our own history, and of our own struggles, repeated in every corner of the globe. You read of the attitudes of monocultural colonisers the world over. Our Pakeha is not alone in the imposition of racist attitudes and policies upon indigenous peoples.
The report covers in some detail the growth of indigenous movements and the aspirations of indigenous peoples. The aspirations are similar wherever they blossom over the globe. The twin demands for self-determination, and for economic and cultural rights, are well to the fore.
The World Council of Indigenous Peoples in its Declaration of Principles stated:
"All indigenous nations have the right of self-determination. By virtue of this right they may freely determine their political status and freely pursue their economic, social, religious and cultural development."
The many issues being addressed world-wide by indigenous peoples are covered in detail in the report with examples drawn from many sources.
Does this sound familiar?
"In the US states of Alaska, Arizona and South Dakota, the indigenous Indians, less than 10% of the population, account for 60% of the prison population."
Our Pakeha is also not alone in this world in the unwillingness to honour a treaty. Much attention is now being focused on treaty issues and studies are being undertaken by the United Nations. I believe that as day follows night so will our Treaty be honoured; if not honoured willingly, then under the pressure of international opinion.
The final chapters of the report suggest actions to be taken by Governments at the national level, and by international organisations including the United Nations. The first and most urgent action is to educate populations about their responsibilities to indigenous peoples.
Reading this report is like looking into the future. Our Treaty will be honoured; we will satisfy our aspirations; we will be victorious.
The weight of opinion at international forums will see to that. No wonder we have been kept in the dark.
DISPATCHES FROM THE DUNGEON BAR
Woe is me! Not only has the Dungeon been renovated, it has been renamed "Alberts". Is this some dastardly act of revenge by the Department of Maori Affairs? How much did they pay the owners? Will they be able to hide the payment from the Audit Office?
Out above the pavement is a sign pointing down to Alberts, and another up to "The Music Hall". This must be the cover name of the new Ministry of Maori Policy, or the Iwi Transition Agency perhaps.
The whole place has been called "The Victoria". Wasn't she the one that we signed the Treaty with? Is the Government going to claim that we signed a treaty with a pub?
The kumara vine will need to concentrate all its strength to withstand this determined assault by the forces of colonialism. Your shout Jake. Not "Help!" you fool.
And all the Philosopher-in-Residence has to offer is "Your shout Putatara! Your shout! When you're going down, go down in style. Your shout! When in doubt, shout. Your shout!" I bow to his greater intellect, and shout. "Help!"
Just then, some of Koro Wetere's staff stroll in. Have they come to the defence of the Dungeon, or are they on the other side? "Don't worry", they say, "We're here to see if you know what the latest Maori Affairs policy is. We don't know. Have a drink. Our shout." (Help?)
Look us down next time you're in Wellington. If we're still here.
Ko Porangi taku ingoa? Kaore. That's someone else. Ka kite ano.
LESSONS FROM THE MASTER
"The enemy's spies who have come to spy on us must be sought out, tempted with bribes, led away and comfortably housed. Thus will they become converted spies and available for our service."
"It is through the information brought by the converted spy that we are able to acquire and employ local and inward spies."
"It is owing to his [or her] information, again, that we can cause the doomed spy to carry false tidings to the enemy."
"Lastly, it is by his information that the surviving spy can be used on appointed occasions."
"The end and aim of spying in all its five varieties is knowledge of the enemy; and this knowledge can only be derived, in the first instance, from the converted spy. Hence it is essential that the converted spy be treated with the utmost liberality."
"Of old, the rise of the Yin dynasty was due to I Chich who had served under the Hsa. Likewise, the rise of the Chou dynasty was due to Lu Ya who had served under the Yin."
"Hence it is only the enlightened ruler and the wise general who will use the highest intelligence of the army for the purposes of spying, and thereby they achieve great results."
That is all Sun Tzu, the master strategist, had to say on the matter of spies.
Our thanks to all financial members of The Maori Alliance who have contributed to the continuation of "Te Putatara", the voice of the free.